Whatever God Says, Happens
As in 1 Kings, 2 Kings reiterates that all that happened to Israel’s kingdoms—even their downfall and captivity—was according to the word of the Lord. The dogs eating Jezebel (9:36), the extermination of Ahab’s house (10:10), the restoration of Israel’s borders during the reign of Jeroboam II (14:25), the fall of Jehu’s dynasty in the fourth generation (15:12), and Josiah’s defiling the altar at Bethel (23:15-16) all happen just as God predicted. He had spoken, and “so it was” (15:12).
Prominence of the Prophetic Office
The prominence of the prophets continues in 2 Kings. The expression “My [His] servants, the prophets” is a distinctive of 2 Kings and Jeremiah (2 Ki. 9:7; 17:13, 23; 21:10; 24:2; Jer. 7:25; 25:4; 26:5; 29:19; 35:15; 44:4). Virtually unique to 2 Kings is the use of the term “sons of the prophets.” These are not literally prophets’ children but rather a growing number of men who belong to the class of prophets—prophetic guilds. At least one of these prophetic “guilds” was located at Bethel, the center of Jeroboam’s idolatrous worship (2:3). 2 Kings records the transition from Elijah to Elisha, and Elisha dominates the first nine chapters of 2 Kings. He performs roughly double the number of miracles that Elijah did, and many of his miracles are on behalf of the true followers of Yahweh who live in the growingly apostate Northern Kingdom. 2 Kings 4:1-8:15 feature Elisha but curiously have no clear chronological connection to the other events in 2 Kings. While the prophets still act as royal advisors in 2 Kings (e.g., Isaiah to King Hezekiah in chapters 19-20), we also see their role in calling Israel back to the law of Moses (17:13) and in warning of coming disaster (21:10; 24:2).
Israel's Evil Penetrates Judah
Ahab’s evil poisons Judah and nearly destroys it. The seemingly innocent statement at the end of 1 Kings that “Jehoshaphat made peace with the king of Israel” (22:44) had huge ramifications. Jehoshaphat married his son Jehoram to Ahab’s daughter, Athaliah. She influenced her husband Jehoram to do evil. Their son Ahaziah also did evil and after his untimely death, Athaliah herself seized the throne and attempted to kill every remaining descendant of David (2 Kings 11:1). As someone has said, the Davidic dynasty hung by a thread and, humanly speaking, nearly came to an end. Even years after, Ahab’s religious influence is still being felt in Judah (16:3; 17:19).
End of Both Israelite Kingdoms
The Kingdom of Israel comes to an end in chapter 17, largely because of Jeroboam’s calf worship that virtually every king of the northern kingdom clung to (vv. 21-22; see also 3:3; 10:29, 31; 13:2, 6, 11; 14:24; 15:9, 18, 24, 28). The Kingdom of Judah continues to the end of 2 Kings, not because of the righteousness of her kings but because of God’s commitment to David (8:19; 19:34; 20:6). King Manasseh’s wickedness was the final straw, though, and after him, God would not turn away from His decree to punish the kingdom of Judah (21:10-15; 23:26; 24:3). God would be unjust to not punish His people when they have rivaled or exceeded the sins of the nations He cast out before them (16:3; 17:8, 15; 21:2, 9).
Rise of Foreign Powers
2 Kings also sees the ascendancy of foreign nations like Aram (“Syria,” KJV), Assyria, and Babylonia. Earlier threats like Philistia, Moab, and Ammon pale in comparison to these three. Even Aram cannot hold a candle to the other two—Assyria’s Tiglath-pileser and Babylon’s Nebuchadnezzar are world-class monarchs!
A Future for David's Dynasty
Long gone are the days when the Kingdoms of David and Solomon held political sway far beyond their own borders. Is all that gone forever? Significant in 2 Kings is not just what God says but what God does not say. God did not say that He would “annihilate the name of Israel under heaven” (14:27). Yes, “Judah went into exile from her land” (25:21), but the last scene in 2 Kings is Jehoiachin’s exaltation in Babylon (25:27-30). God still has a plan for David’s line and for the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (13:23).